Realism was a loosely used term meaning truth to the observed facts of life （especially when they are gloomy）。 Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity.
Allegory is a story told to explain or teach something. Especially a long and complicated story with an underlying meaning different from the surface meaning of the story itself.2>allegorical novels use extended metaphors to convey moral meanings or attack certain social evils. characters in these novels often stand for different values such as virtue and vice.3>Bunyan‘s Pilgrim’s Progress， Melville‘s Moby Dick are such examples.
Alliteration means a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a line or group.
2>alliteration is a traditional poetic device in English literature.
3>Robert Frost‘s Acquainted with the Night is a case in point：“ I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet”
Ballad is a story in poetic from to be sung or recited. in more exact literary terminology， a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimester.（抑扬格四音步与抑扬格三音步诗行交替出现的四行叙事诗）
2>.ballads were passed down from generation to generation. 3>Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a 19th century English ballad.
Epic， in poetry， refers to a long work dealing with the actions of goods and heroes.
2>Epic poems are not merely entertaining stories of legendary or historical heroes； they summarize and express the nature or ideals of an entire nation at a significant or crucial period of its history.
3>Beowulf is the greatest national Epic of the Anglo-Saxons.
It is a short poem， usually a romantic narrative， intended to be sung or recited by a minstrel.
Romance is a popular literary form in the medic England.
2>it sings knightly adventures or other heroic deeds.
3> chivalry is the spirit of the romance.
The name is derived from the fact that certain 12th and 13th century French poems on Alexander the Great were written in this meter.
2>it is an iambic line of six feet， which is the French heroic verse.